Interactivity and political communication

hypermedia campaigning in the UK


  • Darren G. Lilleker Bournemouth University



Neste artigo pretende-se analisar a adesão às convenções da comunicação on-line e das campanhas de hipermédia nos partidos políticos europeus, utilizando o Reino Unido como estudo de caso. No geral encontramos os partidos no Reino Unido a adaptarem-se às normas de comunicação online e a um modelo de campanha hipermédia A internet é também uma característica da campanha permanente e ter uma presença vibrante, frequentemente atualizada e interativa na web é, quase, uma obrigação, embora a sofisticação seja prejudicada pelos recursos. Um corolário pode ser que os membros se sintam mais próximos do partido, embora as técnicas para o atingir sejam exploradas em maior extensão pelos partidos da oposição e menos pelos do governo, sugerindo prevalecer as normas de campanha. Há pouca indicação de que os partidos desejem abrir mão de algum do poder que têm sobre o processo de "fazer" política.


Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia Autor

Darren G. Lilleker, Bournemouth University

Fern Barrow,
Talbot Campus
Poole, Dorset BH12 5BB,
United Kingdom
Tel. (00) (44) 1202 524111


Abram, S. (2005) Web 2.0 – Huh? Library 2.0, Librarian 2.0. Information Outlook, 9(12): 44-5.

Anderson P. (2007) What is Web 2.0? Ideas, Technologies and Implications for Education.

JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report, February.

Barsky, E. (2006a) Introducing Web 2.0: RSS trends for health librarians. Journal of the Canadian Health Librarians Association, 27(1): 7-8.

Barsky, E. (2006b) Introducing Web 2.0: weblogs and podcasting for health librarians. Journal of the Canadian Health Librarians Association, 27(2): 33-34.

Barsky, E., & Cho, A. (2007) Introducing Web 2.0: social search for health librarians, Journal of the Canadian Health Librarians Association, 28(3): 59-61.

Barsky, E., & Purdon, M. (2006). Introducing Web 2.0: social networking and social bookmarking for health librarians. Journal of the Canadian Health Librarians Association, 27(3): 65-67.

Birdsall, W. F. (2007) ‘Web 2.0 as a Social Movement’. Webology, 4(2) accessed 30 September 2007.

Blumler, J. (1990) Elections, the Media and the Modern Publicity Process. In Ferguson, M. ed. Public Communication: The New Imperatives.London: Sage: 101–13.

Blumler and Kavanagh, D. (1999) The Third Age of Communication: Influences and Features. Political Communication, 16(3): 209–30. DOI : 10.1080/105846099198596

Boynton B. (2009) Going Viral-The Dynamics of Attention. In Conference Proceedings: YouTube and the 2008 Election Cycle. The Journal of Information Technology and Politics Annual Conference at Scholar Works @, UMass Amherst: 11–38.

Bruns, A. & Burgess, J. (2011) The use of Twitter hashtags in the formation of ad hoc publics, Paper presented at the ECPR General Conference, Reykjavik, August 26.

Castells, M (1996) The Information Age: Economy. Society and Culture, Vol. 1: The Rise of the Network Society, Oxford: Blackwell.

Cho, A. (2007) An introduction to mashups for health librarians. Journal of the Canadian Health Librarians Association, 28(1): 19-22.

Davis, A. (2010). Political communication and social theory. London: Routledge. DOI : 10.4324/9780203847299

Downes, L. & Mui, C. (2000) Unleashing the Killer App: digital strategies for market dominance, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Farmer, R. & Fender, R. (2005) E-parties: democratic and republican state parties in 2000. Party Politics. 11: 47-58.

Gibson, R. &Römmele, A. (2001) Changing Campaign Communications: A Party-Centred Theory of Professional Campaigning. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 6(4): 31–43. DOI : 10.1177/108118001129172323

Gibson, R. & Ward, S. (2000) British Party Activity in Cyberspace. In Gibson, R. & Ward, S. eds Reinvigorating Government? British Politics and the Internet. Aldershot: Ashgate: 155–207.

Graham, P. (2005) Web 2.0, accessed 2 October 2007.

Hindman, M. (2009) The Myth of Digital Democracy. New York: Lexington Books. DOI : 10.1515/9781400837496

Howard, P. N. (2006) New Media Campaigns and the Managed Citizen. New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI : 10.1017/CBO9780511615986

Jackson, N. (2003) MPs and Web Technologies: An Untapped Opportunity? Journal of Public Affairs, 3(2): 124–37. DOI : 10.1002/pa.141

Jamieson, K. H. (1996) Packaging the Presidency: A History and Critique of Presidential Campaign Advertising. New York: OUP.

Katz, R. & Mair, P. (2002) The Ascendancy of the Party in Public Office: Party Organizational Change in Twentieth Century Democracies. In Gunther, R., Montero, J. R., and Linz, J. J. eds Political Parties. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 113–35.

Kluver, R., Jankowski, N. W. Foot, K. A. Schneider, S. M. (2007) The Internet and National Election: A Comparative Study of Web Campaigning. London: Routledge.

Kobrin, S (1998) The MAI and the clash of globalisation. Foreign Policy, (Fall): 97-109.

Koc-Michalska, K., & Lilleker, D. G. (2013) Journal of Information Technology & Politics, in press.

Larsson, A. O. (2011) Extended infomercials” or “politics 2.0? A study of Swedish political party Web sites before, during and after the 2010 election. First Monday, 16: 4, 4 April. Available online at

Lees-Marshment, J. (2001) Political Marketing and British Political Parties: The Party’s Just Begun, Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Lees-Marshment, J. & Lilleker, D. G. (2012). Knowledge sharing and lesson learning: consultants' perspectives on the international sharing of political marketing strategy. Contemporary Politics, 18(3): 343-354. DOI : 10.1080/13569775.2012.702976

Lilleker, D. G. (2013) Political Communication and Cognition. Basingstoke: Palgrave. DOI : 10.1057/9781137313430

Lilleker, D. G., and Jackson, N. (2011) Political Campaigning, Elections and the Internet: Comparing the US, UK, Germany and France. London: Routledge.

Lilleker, D. G.; Negrine, R. (2002) Professionalization: Of What? Since When? By Whom?, Harvard International Journal of Press Politics, 7(4): 98-103.

Lilleker, D. G., Pack, M. & Jackson, N. (2010) Political Parties and Web 2.0: The Liberal Democrat Perspective. Politics, 30(2): 105–12.

McMillan, S. J. (2002). A four-part model of cyber-interactivity: Some places are more interactive than others. New Media and Society, 14(2): 271–91. DOI : 10.1177/14614440222226370

Macnamara, J. (2010) The 21st Century Media (R)Evolution: Emergent Communication Practices. London: Peter Lang.

Negrine, R. (2008) The Transformation of Political Communication Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Norris, P. (2000) The Virtuous Circle. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI : 10.1017/CBO9780511609343

Norris, P. (2003) Preaching to the Converted? Pluralism, Participation and Party Websites. Party Politics, 9(1): 21–45. DOI : 10.1177/135406880391003

O’Reilly, T. (2005) What is Web 2.0: Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next generation of Software, accessed 1 October 2007.

Ornstein, N. & Mann, T. (2001) The Permanent Campaign and its Future. Washington DC: American Enterprise Institute and the Brookings Institute.

Rainee, L. & Wellman, B. (2012) Networked: The New Social Operating System, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Resnick, D. (1998) Politics on the Internet: The Normalization of Cyberspace. In Toulouse, C., and Luke, T. W. eds. The Politics of Cyberspace: A New Political Science Reader. New York: Routledge: 48-68.

Rheingold, H. (2000) The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier, 2nd Ed, Boston, Mass: MIT Press.

Scammell, M. (1995) Designer politics: How elections are won. London: Macmillan.

Schneider, S. M. & Foot, K. A. (2006) Web Campaigning by U.S. Presidential Primary Candidates in 2000 and 2004. In Williams, A. P. and Tedesco, J. C. eds. The Internet Election: Perspectives on the Web in Campaign 200., Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield: 21–36.

Schweitzer, E. J. (2008) Innovation or normalization in e-campaigning? A longitudinal content and structural analysis of German party Websites in the 2002 and 2005 national elections, European Journal of Communication, 23: 4: 449–470. DOI : 10.1177/0267323108096994

Seymour-Ure, C. (1977) Parliament and Mass Communications in the Twentieth Century. In Walkland, C. A. ed. The House of Commons in the Twentieth Century. Oxford: Clarendon Press: 527–92.

Shirky, C. (2008). Here Comes Everybody: How Change Happens when People Come Together. London: Penguin.

Stromer-Galley, J. (2000) Online interaction and why candidates avoid it. Journal of Communication, 50(4): 111–132.

Vaccari, C. (2008a) Research note: Italian parties’ Websites in the 2006 elections. European Journal of Communication, 23(1): 69–77. DOI : 10.1177/0267323107085839

Van Dijk, J. (2006) The Network Society. London: Sage.

Ward, S., Owen, D., Davis, R. & Taras, D. eds (2008) Making a Difference: A Comparative View of the Role of the Internet in Election Politics. New York: Rowan & Littlefield.

Xenos, M. and Foot, K. (2005) Politics as Usual or Politics Unusual? Position taking and dialogue on campaign web sites in the 2002 U.S. elections. Journal of Communication, 55(1): 169-185.

Youngs, G. (2007) Global Political Economy in the Information Age: Power and Inequality. London: Routledge. DOI : 10.4324/9780203964064




Como Citar

G. Lilleker, D. (2021). Interactivity and political communication: hypermedia campaigning in the UK. Comunicação Pública, 10(18).